Various things can cause pain in the middle of the bicep, which is the muscle at the front of the upper arm. Muscle strains and bruises, for example, are common causes of bicep pain.
Recurrent tears after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) remain a significant clinical problem. Oxidative stress contributes to the degeneration of the rotator cuff, and a degenerative rotator cuff can lead to recurrent tear after ARCR.
Purpose: To perform a review of the literature focusing on rehabilitation protocols in patients with acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries treated operatively and nonoperatively and to provide an updated rehabilitation treatment algorithm.